This paper explores mixed tribunals, a unique form of lay participation in which lay and professional judges make legal decisions jointly. A short overview of different types and sizes of mixed tribunals around the world will be discussed first. Then, the paper will elaborate on the theoretical arguments that hypothesize about the nature and extent of interaction in mixed tribunals. These theoretical arguments, developed using the status characteristics theory, will be assessed using the evidence obtained in empirical studies of mixed tribunals. In addition, the paper will discuss other potential challenges faced by mixed tribunals. In the end, the paper will provide recommendations for further research.

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