Braithwaite finds empirically that while it is common for nations to compete to attract investment by lowering regulatory standards it is just as common for regulatory standards to be ratcheted up because of global forces. How that happens is not well understood. Starting with the globalization of labor standards that prohibit slavery, Braithwaite demonstrates a critical role for social movements in raising global standards. This leads to identifying a number of mechanisms that enable the weak to prevail over the strong in the world system.
Braithwaite, John, "Ratcheting Up and Driving Down Global Business Regulatory Standards" (2003). The Morris Lecture in International and Comparative Law. 3.