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The Upper Klamath Basin in southern Oregon and northern California has long been characterized by its aridity, remoteness from population centers, and short growing season. Today, the entire Klamath Basin is known for the intensity and bitterness of the competing demands for its limited, dependable water supplies. The Upper Basin irrigation community's entrenched water entitlements, enjoyed undisturbed for a century, are being challenged by Indian tribes, government and non-governmental entities acting to enforce the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and Lower Basin fishing communities. Over a century of intensive upstream irrigation diversions and dams has produced a highly stressed ecosystem from headwaters to the Pacific Ocean.

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