Unauthorized access to online information costs billions of dollars per year. Software vulnerabilities are a key. Software currently contains an unacceptable number of vulnerabilities. The standard solution notes that the typical software business strategy is to keep costs down and be the first to market even if that means the software has significant vulnerabilities. Many endorse the following remedy: make software developers liable for negligent or defective design. This remedy is unworkable. We offer an alternative based on an appeal to product-risk norms. Product-risk norms are social norms that govern the sale of products. A key feature of such norms is that they ensure that the design and manufacture of products impose only acceptable risks on buyers. Unfortunately, mass-market software sales are not governed by appropriate product-risk norms; as result, market conditions exist in which sellers profitably offer vulnerability-ridden software. This analysis entails a solution: ensure that appropriate norms exist. We contend that the best way to do so is a statute based on best practices for software development, and we define the conditions under which the statute would give rise to the desired norm. Why worry about creating the norm? Why not just legally require that software developers conform to best practices. The answer is that enforcement of legal’s requirement can be difficult, costly, and uncertain; once the norm is in place, however, buyers and software developers conform on their own initiative.
Richard Warner & Robert H. Sloan,
Vulnerable Software: Product-Risk Norms and the Problem of Unauthorized Access,
U. Ill. J.L. Tech. & Pol'y
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