A patent holder can choose to license a patented invention to others, can choose to use the patented invention exclusively itself, or can choose to prevent any use of the patented invention by itself or by others. In the gene patent area, the exclusive rights of the patent holder can raise the costs of genetic services, diminish the quality of genetic tests and treatments, and interfere with access to health care.
Lori B. Andrews,
Patents: The Need for Bioethics Scrutiny and Legal Change (with J. Paradise),
Yale J. Health Pol'y L. & Ethics
Available at: http://scholarship.kentlaw.iit.edu/fac_schol/16